ADVERBS
introduction
formation and placement
placement of adverbs with the passé composé
comparative and superlative of adverbs
il y a 'ago'
bon/meilleur vs. bien/mieux
tôt, tard, en avance, en retard, à l'heure
ADJECTIVES
introduction
formation and placement
adjectives before the noun
irregular adjectives
adjectives whose meaning varies with placement
comparison of adjectives
superlative of adjectives
bon/meilleur (adjectives) vs. bien/mieux (adverbs)
participles as adjectives
CONDITIONAL MOOD
conditional
past conditional
si clauses – summary
reported speech in present
reported speech in past
active voice vs. passive voice
CONJUNCTIONS
introduction
coordinating conjunctions: et, mais, ou, puis, car,
subordinating conjunctions: pendant que, quand, depuis que, etc.
conjunctions that take the subjunctive
DETERMINERS
introduction
definite articles
def. articles with physical characteristics, ex. elle a les cheveux longs
indefinite articles
partitive articles
possessive determiners: mon, ma, mes, etc.
demonstrative determiners: ce, cet, cette, ces
expressions of quantity: beaucoup de, un peu de
tout
indefinite determiners
FUTURE TENSES
futur proche (aller+infinitive)
simple future (regular)
simple future (irregular)
future: usage
futur antérieur
**imperative mood**(regular and pronominal)
INTERROGATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS
introduction
yes/no questions: est-ce que, n'est-ce pas
questions with subject/verb inversion
interrogative adjective quel (with exclamative usage)
interrogative pronouns: qui, qui est-ce que,
qu'est-ce qui, qu'est-ce que
interrogative pronoun lequel
interrogative words
NEGATION
introduction
basic negation: ne ... pas (don't, not)
alternate forms (1):ne ... jamais (never)ne ... rien (nothing)ne ... personne
(nobody, no one)ne ... pas du tout (not at all)ne ... plus (no more, any longer)
alternate forms (2):ne ... aucun(e) (not one)ne ... ni ... ni
(neither ... nor)ne ... que (only)
one word negative responses: si, jamais, personne, rien
NOUNS
introduction
number: singular and plural
gender: masculine and feminine
voilà vs. il y a: devices for introducing nouns
temps, heure, fois: different nouns for 'time'
PAST TENSES
passé immédiat (venir de+infinitive)
passé composé with avoir
passé composé with être
passé composé of pronominal verbs
imparfait: formation
imparfait: states of being, habitual actions
imparfait: idiomatic uses (suggestions, wishes, depuis, venir de)
narration: passé composé vs. imparfait
plus-que-parfait
passé simple (literary tense)
passé antérieur (literary tense)
PREPOSITIONS
introduction
common prepositions
contractions of **à** and **de** with definite article
**depuis** vs **il y a ... que**
**depuis** with imperfect
**depuis, pendant, pour**
prepositions with place names
prepositions with infinitives
PRESENT TENSE
introduction
**present tense**
PRONOUNS
introduction
subject pronouns: je, tu, il, elle, on, nous, vous, ils, elles
c'est vs. il/elle est
disjunctive pronouns: moi, toi, lui, elle, nous, vous, elles, eux
direct object pronouns: me, te, le, la, nous, vous, les
indirect object pronouns: me, te, lui, nous, vous, leur
pronoun: y
pronoun: en
relative pronouns: qui and que
relative pronouns: ce qui and ce que
relative pronouns: dont, ce dont, où, lequel
order of object pronouns
indefinite pronouns: chacun and quelqu'un
demonstrative pronouns: celui, celle, ceux, celles
possessive pronouns: le mien, la mienne, etc.
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
regular subjunctive formation
irregular subjunctive formation
usage: obligation
usage: doubt
usage: will, emotion, desire
conjunctions that take the subjunctive
past subjunctive
summary
ways to avoid the subjunctive
VERBS
introduction
regular verbs
-er verbs
-er verbs (regular)
-er verbs (stem changing)
-ir verbs
-ir verbs (regular)
-ir verbs (irreg) like ouvrir 'to open'
-ir verbs (irreg) like partir 'to leave,'
-re verbs
-re verbs (regular)
-re verbs (irregular) like prendre 'to take'
-re verbs (irregular) like mettre 'to put, to place'
-re verbs (irregular) like suivre 'to follow', vivre 'to live'
common irregular verbs
être 'to be'
avoir 'to have'
avoir expressions, ex. il y a, avoir besoin de
aller 'to go'
faire 'to do,' 'to make'
faire expressions
venir 'to come'
boire, croire, voir: 'to drink', 'to believe', 'to see'
savoir vs. connaître: two ways of knowing
dire, lire, écrire: 'to say', 'to read', 'to write
pronominal verbs: se raser, se lever, se disputer
modal verbs: vouloir 'to want to,' pouvoir 'to be able to,' devoir 'to have to'
impersonal verbs and expressions: il faut, il est important de ...
quitter, partir, sortir, laisser: different verbs for 'to leave'
infinitive constructions, including past and negative
causative faire (faire+infinitif)
transitive vs. intransitive constructions
present participle